A mortgage is the pledging of a property to a lender as a security for a
mortgage loan. While a mortgage in itself is not a debt, it is evidence of a
debt. It is a transfer of an interest in land, from the owner to the mortgage
lender, on the condition that this interest will be returned to the owner of
the real estate when the terms of the mortgage have been satisfied or
performed. In other words, the mortgage is a security for the loan that the
lender makes to the borrower.

The term comes from the Old French "dead pledge," apparently meaning
that the pledge ends (dies) either when the obligation is fulfilled or the
property is taken through foreclosure.











In most jurisdictions mortgages are strongly associated with loans secured
on real estate rather than other property (such as ships) and in some cases
only land may be mortgaged. Arranging a mortgage is seen as the standard
method by which individuals and businesses can purchase residential and
commercial real estate without the need to pay the full value immediately.
See mortgage loan for residential mortgage lending, and commercial
mortgage for lending against commercial property.
Equity Financing ....
If you buy one share of XYZ Inc, and they have 100 shares outstanding (held by
investors), you are 1/100 owner of that company. Of course, in return for the stock, the
company receives cash, which it uses to expand its business in a process called "equity
financing". Equity financing mixed with the sale of bonds (or any other debt financing) is
called the company's capital structure.

Finance is used by individuals (personal finance), by governments (public finance), by
businesses (corporate finance), as well as by a wide variety of organizations including
schools and non-profit organizations. In general, the goals of each of the above activities are
achieved through the use of appropriate financial instruments, with consideration to their
institutional setting.

Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management. Without proper
financial planning a new enterprise is unlikely to be successful. Managing money (a liquid
asset) is essential to ensure a secure future, both for the individual and an organization.
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The price of gold and comodities have always been influenced by interest rates.
In many countries it is normal for home purchases to be funded by a
mortgage. In countries where the demand for home ownership is
highest, strong domestic markets have developed, notably in Spain, the
United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Corporate Finance ... A specific example of
corporate finance is the sale of stock by a
company to institutional investors like
investment banks, who in turn generally
sell it to the public. The stock gives
whoever owns it part ownership in that
company.

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